Heft 4/2024

Inhaltsübersicht – Zeitschrift für Sport und Recht – Heft 4/2024

Das Heft 4/2024 der SpuRt wird postalisch in der 29. KW zugestellt und ist seit dem 10.07.2024 im Modul Sportrecht plus auf Beck-Online abrufbar.


  • „Nie wieder!“ – auch in Zukunft? (B. Schiffbauer, S. 245)


  • Der Videobeweis im Fußball – Streben nach materieller Gerechtigkeit, am Ziel angekommen? (S. Gückel, S. 246)

    The article discusses the implementation and challenges of Video Assistant Referee (VAR) in soccer, focusing on achieving substantive justice, particularly in objective decisions. The VAR protocol, as outlined in legal rules, only permits reviews in specific cases like goals, penalties, direct red cards, and identity mistakes, and only for clear and obvious errors. The current rules were scrutinized in terms of initiating reviews, the distinction between informing and recommending actions to referees, and the interpretation of video evidence. The author elaborates that VAR is helpful but has technically-limited precision, especially with offsides, depending on frame rates and angles, which can leave a margin of error despite high-tech aids like calibrated lines. The article advocates for expanded use of VAR in objective decisions (such as determining throw-ins, corners) without impacting the core nature of the game, arguing that doing so would enhance fairness without considerable disruption. It also suggests adopting clear procedural standards similar to those seen in other professional sports to clarify referee decisions in the stadium and improve transparency. Moreover, the article proposes integrating a ’safety clause‘ allowing for corrections of severely unjust decisions missed due to procedural issues, aiming to preserve the integrity of outcomes affected by VAR’s limitations. Overall, while recognizing the increased accuracy and fairness provided by VAR, there needs to be enhancements in terms of transparency, official decision-making power attribution, and coverage of other objectively measurable game incidents within the VAR’s scope. The article concludes by advocating for official adjustments to the VAR’s governance and application scope to better serve the game’s integrity and fairness.


  • Profifußballvereine und Fußballvermittler als Verpflichtete der neuen EU-Geldwäscheverordnung (L. Haffke/K. Wegner/M. Primbs, S. 256)

    The article discusses the new EU Anti-Money Laundering Regulation (EU-AML-VO) and its impact on professional football clubs, holding entities, and football agents. This regulation marks the first time these entities are designated as obliged entities under AML law. Beginning 10 July 2029, these actors in the football sector will be subject to compliance requirements similar to those already applicable to credit and financial institutions, due to the money laundering risks associated with investments, player transfers, and sponsorship deals. The Regulation requires them to analyze business risks, identify customers, and report suspicious activities. The article also explores which specific football sector entities are regarded as obliged entities under EU-AML-VO, and details the situations in which they must fulfill these duties. It explains the Member States‘ discretion to exempt certain football entities from these obligations under specified conditions. Furthermore, the article highlights that even traditionally less-regulated entities like football agents must now adhere to stringent compliance measures when engaging with players or professional football clubs, thereby tightening the regulatory framework around financial transactions in the European football industry.

  • Safe Sport Regulierung in Deutschland (A. Engelhard/M. Herrlein, S. 262)

    The article discusses the legal challenges involved in establishing a new German Safe Sport Center (ZfSS) and integrating a new Safe Sport Code across organized sports in Germany. The authors outline how recent events have heightened awareness around protecting athletes from interpersonal violence, with initiatives growing both nationally and internationally. The ZfSS is envisioned to support existing structures inside and outside organized sport with a broader scope in preventing, investigating and sanctioning past and present safe sport violations. The authors emphasize that sport organizations have a primary responsibility to define and enforce behavioral standards that transcend the minimum requirements of criminal law, highlighting the independence granted by German constitutional law for sports organizations to govern themselves. They argue that while sport organizations can voluntarily adhere to a universal Safe Sport Code, imposing such a code through formal federal legislation would not align with their organizational autonomy. In the following, the authors illustrate the basic regulatory aspects and provisions of their draft Safe Sport Code before addressing the question of how the Safe Sport Code could be implemented in practice. In doing so, the authors not only address typical models for implementing rules of an association, but also mention the idea of a nationwide licensing system. Lastly, the authors raise crucial privacy issues involved in handling personal data related to safeguarding matters in sport. Ultimately, while recognizing the challenging regulatory requirements, the article calls for continued commitment from various stakeholders to develop a comprehensive, effective system for protecting individuals from interpersonal violence in sports. The efficiency of such a system fundamentally relies on sufficient financial and human resources to empower the envisioned Safe Sport Center to fulfill its protective role effectively.

  • Schutzpflichten der Fußballspiel-Veranstalterin (M. Castendiek/P. Czaja, S. 267)

    The article examines the obligations of football match organizers in Germany to protect spectators, particularly from riots and illegal use of pyrotechnics. It details how spectator and organizer establish a spectator contract, and which safety duties derive from both contract and tort law. Specifically, football match organizers must take economically reasonable precautions, informed by safety guidelines like the DFB’s stadium safety regulations, to mitigate potential harm to spectators. First, the article discusses how organizer responsibilities extend to architectural safety and crowd control to prevent overfilling, ensuring barrier effectiveness, and providing escape routes. It highlights recent incidents in Germany involving spectator injuries from pyrotechnics. Organizers may face liability for not adequately preventing the entry and use of such dangerous materials, with outlined preventive measures including thorough pre-event inspections and effective entry checks possibly aided by sniffer dogs. Under Evidence Law, the usage of large quantities of pyrotechnics can prima facie establish a breach of duty. The article concludes that organizers who do not adhere to required safety standards might likely be held liable for damages. Those would typically be covered by liability insurance. Increasing damages and claims lead to rising insurance premiums, thus influencing overall ticket pricing. In this way, the misconduct of a few not only endangers the physical safety of others, but also is at the financial expense of all spectators.

  • Substanzielle Hilfe in Dopingverfahren (B. Hessert, S. 274)

    The article addresses the topic of ‘substantial assistance’ in doping procedures as set out in the World Anti-Doping Code (WADA Code) of the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA). Substantial assistance involves athletes’ provision of credible and relevant information, as well as cooperation for uncovering doping violations of other persons, which can lead to a suspension of athletes’ period of ineligibility. The article describes the importance of substantial assistance for the fight against doping and the integrity of sport. It further provides an overview of the various mitigating factors under the WADA Code and explains that the substantial assistance is unique in that the primary purpose is to detect doping violations committed by others. Additionally, the article discusses the discretionary powers given to sports organisations in determining the extent of suspension of doping ineligibility sanctions based on the scope of the assistance provided. In this decision-making process, sports organisations consider the severity of the concerned athlete’s own violation and the value of their cooperation in eliminating doping in sport. The reviewability by adjudicatory bodies of these decisions by sports organisations is limited as a consequence of their administrative nature. Essentially, the article highlights the critical role of substantial assistance in doping proceedings and emphasises the integral connection between the cooperation of athlete and the general objective of eliminating doping in sport.

  • Antirassismus im Amateursport als verbandsrechtliche Pflicht (S. Weitz, S. 280) – hier als kostenlose Leseprobe zum PDF-Download

    The article discusses the legal challenges and necessary reforms within the German Football Association (DFB) to combat racism in amateur sports. It emphasizes that despite existing regulations aimed at preventing discriminatory behavior, there are substantial gaps in enforcement and interpretation that hinder effective resolution. The author analyzes empirical data from the DFB and local initiatives like the MeDiF-NRW, which reveal a persistent presence of discriminatory incidents in amateur football, often underreported due to limited observational capacity of referees and structural issues within the sports judicial system. The article critiques the DFB’s legal framework, particularly its anti-discrimination laws, which often fail at the lower levels of sports judiciary due to inadequate training and a lack of diversified representation among judges. Furthermore, it points out the discrepancies in the application of discriminatory statutes, lambasting sport judges‘ tendencies to downgrade overt racist behaviors to lesser charges like unsportsmanlike behavior. The author proposes several substantive changes aimed at reinforcing the DFB’s commitment to combating racism. These include modifying jurisdiction rules to ensure that specialized bodies handle discrimination cases, mandating educational sanctions that focus on addressing discriminatory behaviors, and enhancing the diversity and training of lay judges within the football judiciary system. By implementing these reforms, the DFB and its regional associations can better fulfill their self-imposed duty to champion anti-racism initiatives and, more broadly, uphold the values of equality and non-discrimination in sports.

  • Der Fall El Ghazi vs. FSV Mainz 05 – Wenn sich Meinungsfreiheit und Clubinteressen gegenüberstehen (F. Brugger/A. Hans, S. 288)

    The article examines the legal intricacies and implications of “Meinungsfreiheit” (freedom of speech) when it conflicts with a football club’s interests, focusing on the case of Anwar El Ghazi against FSV Mainz 05. It outlines the employment law foundations for professional football, highlighting that while athletes are generally governed by the German Civil Code’s employment provisions, their contracts often include specific clauses related to public behavior and image maintenance due to the clubs‘ commercial interests. Specifically, the article delves into the “Muster-Lizenzspielervertrag” (standard licensed player contract) endorsed by the DFL (Deutsche Fußball Liga), which mandates players to uphold the club’s reputation and avoid extremist or discriminatory statements. El Ghazi violated these provisions through his Instagram posts that supported Palestine in a manner deemed anti-Israel and thus harmful to the club’s public image. The legal repercussions for El Ghazi include a club-administered suspension, and eventually, an extraordinary termination of his contract, which is critically analyzed in the article. The termination raises issues regarding the balance between a club’s right to protect its image and a player’s right to free speech, especially given the additional complications of potential criminal implications of El Ghazi’s statements under German law. The piece also explores the possible sanctions available to football clubs in cases of breach, including fines, exclusion from club events, or relegation to a lower team. Ultimately, the article underscores the nuanced balance required in weighing a club’s commercial interests against individual rights within the context of professional sports, noting that the ongoing legal proceedings will further elucidate the application of these legal principles.

  • Compliance und Sportsponsoring – Hospitality-Einladungen im Sportjahr 2024 (F. Wittersheim/F. Nock, S. 293)

    The article examines the compliance and legal boundaries related to hospitality invitations in sports sponsoring, particularly during important sporting events in 2024 like the UEFA EURO 2024 and the Olympic Games Paris 2024. It outlines the legal ambiguities between permissible hospitality and potentially corrupt practices. Additionally, it explores significant criminal law provisions, highlighting the differences in the treatment of invitations to public officials and private sector employees. The focus is on examining the existence of an „unlawful agreement“, which links hospitality with an intended influence on official acts. Moreover, the article delves into compliance norms, which may not be legally specified but have evolved from industry practices, and supporting corporations in steering ethical hospitality engagements. It emphasizes the importance of transparency and societal appropriateness when deciding on the permissibility of such invitations, considering the nature of the event, the person invited and the extent of hospitality offered. The authors suggest a cautious approach, especially when public officials are involved, to ensure the legitimacy of such invitations. The article proposes practical guidelines to secure compliance and minimise legal risks, including the need for approval by the competent authority when government officials are involved. It concludes with a drafted proposal for invitations, which complies with legal and ethical standards, illustrating how to ensure compliance while achieving business and networking objectives at high-profile sporting events.


Kurzübersicht (S. 299)


  • EuGH: Vorlageberechtigung eines nationalen Dopingschiedsgerichts zur Vorabentscheidung (S. 299)
  • EuG: Zur „Eigenart“ bei einem Geschmacksmuster für Sportschuhe (S. 301)
  • England and Wales High Court: Haftung wegen schwerer Körperverletzung im Rugby (S. 305)
  • Handelsgericht Madrid Nr. 17: Unvereinbarkeit der FIFA-/UEFA-Vorabgenehmigungsregeln mit Europäischem Kartellrecht (S. 306)

Ordentliche Gerichtsbarkeit

  • OLG Düsseldorf: Keine einstweilige Verfügung auf Nominierung zur Karate-WM (S. 313)
  • OLG Frankfurt a. M.: Unzulässige Verdachtsberichterstattung über Zweifel an Alter eines Profifußballspielers (Fall Moukoko) (S. 316)
  • OLG Hamm: Keine einstweilige Verfügung auf Auskunft im Lizenzierungsverfahren der Handball-Bundesliga (m. Anm. Frank) (S. 317)
  • OLG Düsseldorf: Verletzung der Bildmarke „Drei-Streifen“ auf Sporthosen (adidas ./. Nike) (S. 322)
  • LG Hildesheim: Anforderungen an die Stimmabgabe im Umlaufverfahren nach dem COVMG (S. 322)
  • LG Kassel: Keine einstweilige Verfügung auf Nominierung zu Olympiaqualifikationsturnieren im Boxen (S. 324)


  • BVerwG: Keine verwaltungsrechtliche Rehabilitierung für Opfer des DDR-Staatsdopings (S. 327)


  • DFB-Bundesgericht: Formerfordernisse für die Berufungseinlegung durch den DFB-Kontrollausschuss (S. 327)
  • Bezirkssportgericht I des Fußballverbandes Niederrhein: Spielwertung nach Einsatz eines anderen als auf dem Spielbericht vermerkten Spielers (m. Anm. Meier) (S. 328)


  • Conference Report on the event of WISLaw and JNSR about the Hot Topics in Sports Law on the occasion of the Olympic Games 2024 (S. 331)
  • Bericht von der mündlichen Verhandlung in Sachen Semenya gegen die Schweiz (10934/21) vor der Großen Kammer des Europäischen Gerichtshofs für Menschenrechte (EGMR) in Straßburg am 15. Mai 2024 (S. 333)
  • Milliardengeschäft College-Sport: NCAA vor radikalem Umbruch (S. 336)